ping的使用与实现原理剖析

ping简介

在诊断网络问题时,我们经常会使用ping命令。它可以快速告诉我们,某个域名是否可以可以访问,访问延时高不高。

虽然在网络日益复杂的今天,一台主机是否能够ping通,跟该主机是否能够连接上并没有必然的联系,但很多时候还是能够帮助我们发现不少的问题。

举个例子,广大IT群众最喜欢用百度来测试网络情况,用的就是ping。

➜  ~ ping www.baidu.com
PING www.a.shifen.com (14.215.177.38): 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 14.215.177.38: icmp_seq=0 ttl=55 time=7.146 ms
64 bytes from 14.215.177.38: icmp_seq=1 ttl=55 time=7.228 ms
64 bytes from 14.215.177.38: icmp_seq=2 ttl=55 time=7.018 ms
64 bytes from 14.215.177.38: icmp_seq=3 ttl=55 time=7.243 ms
^C
--- www.a.shifen.com ping statistics ---
4 packets transmitted, 4 packets received, 0.0% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max/stddev = 7.018/7.159/7.243/0.089 ms

ping输出分析

前面例子中,ping输出的内容包含三部分:

输出一:ping的主机对应的IP地址(进行了DNS解析),向该主机发送的数据包的大小(56字节)。

PING www.a.shifen.com (14.215.177.38): 56 data bytes

输出二:来自主机的响应信息。

  • icmp_seq:序列号,表示第几个个响应包(递增的数字)。
  • time:请求往返耗时。
  • ttl:IP数据报的ttl设置。
  • 64 bytes:响应的数据包大小是64字节。
64 bytes from 14.215.177.38: icmp_seq=0 ttl=55 time=7.146 ms
64 bytes from 14.215.177.38: icmp_seq=1 ttl=55 time=7.228 ms
64 bytes from 14.215.177.38: icmp_seq=2 ttl=55 time=7.018 ms
64 bytes from 14.215.177.38: icmp_seq=3 ttl=55 time=7.243 ms

输出三:ping整体请求/响应概览。

  • 一共发送了4个ping请求,收到4个ping响应,丢包率是0%。
  • 最小/平均/最大往返时间:7.018/7.159/7.243 ms。
--- www.a.shifen.com ping statistics ---
4 packets transmitted, 4 packets received, 0.0% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max/stddev = 7.018/7.159/7.243/0.089 ms

实现原理

ping命令主要基于ICMP(Internet Control Message Protocol)实现,它包含了两部分:客户端、服务器。

  • 客户端:向服务端发送ICMP回显请求报文(echo message)。
  • 服务端:向客户端返回ICMP回西显响应报文(echo reply message)。

ICMP报文通用格式如下:

  • 类型:1个字节。8表示回显请求报文,0表示回显响应报文。
  • 代码:1个字节。回显请求报文、回显响应报文 时均为0。
  • 校验和:2个字节。非重点,略过。
  • 标识符:2个字节。发送ICMP报文的客户端进程的id,服务端会回传给客户端。因为同一个客户端可能同时运行多个ping程序,这样客户端收到回西显报文,可以知道是响应给哪个客户端进程的。
  • 序列号:2个字节。从0开始,客户端每次发送新的回显请求时+1。服务端原样会传。
  • 数据:6个字节。客户端记录回显请求的发送时间,服务端记录回西显响应的发送时间

wireshark抓包分析

以前面ping百度为例,下面是wireshark的抓包截图。可以看到,包含了4组请求、响应。

看下第1个回显请求。类型为8,代码为0,序列号为0,标识符为发送进程的id。

再看下第1个回显响应。类型为0,代码为0,序列号、标识符与回显请求的一致。

最后看下回显请求->响应的耗时间。请求发送时间为 May 13, 2018 18:59:14.022371000 CST,请求->响应的往返耗时为 7.092毫秒。

其他3组数据可参照上面的方法进行分析。

写在后面

ping是很常用的网络监测手段,开发者有必要掌握它的用法,以及懂得如何分析它的输出结果。

此外,对于时长需要跟网络打交道的开发者来说,最好还能掌握ping的实现原理,这样在遇到棘手的网络问题时,能够有更清晰的解决问题的思路。

比如,因为不恰当的设置,导致云主机服务能正常访问,但却死活ping不通,这个时候对实现细节的了解就派上用场了。

最后,文章内容如有错漏,敬请指出。

相关链接

Echo or Echo Reply Message
https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc792

《ping的使用与实现原理剖析》上有237条评论

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  104. Ways of Preventing Premature Hair Graying.Are you looking for ways to prevent the aging process when it comes to your hair? While hair dyes are great for covering gray strands, the chemicals contained in commercial dye products can often worsen the situation. To naturally treat graying hair, follow the tips provided below.Combating Gray Hair: Why Natural is Best.1.No more scented oils.Doing away with perfumed hair oils is a great way to contain the growth of gray hair, since the chemicals in these oils tend to aggravate the problem even further. A better substitution for scented hair oil would be pure coconut oil.2.Avoid external pollutants.The free radicals in environmental pollution can wreck havoc on your hair color. If you must go outside, cover your head with a piece of cloth or a head cap, since this will keep dirt and chemicals from entering the scalp and prevent graying.3.Do away with commercial shampoos.Over time, the excessive use of expensive commercial shampoos will eventually result in gray hair. To keep this from happening, consider using a natural herbal shampoo instead.4.Eat healthy.By consuming foods and liquids rich in vitamins and minerals, you are guaranteeing the health and vitality of your hair. Green vegetables, fruit, and other foods high in vitamin B are especially helpful in preventing premature graying. Fried and processed foods, alcohol, and coffee have been known to deplete nourishing nutrients in hair, so avoid them, if at all possible.5.Stop using hair dyes.Using hair colorants at the first sight of gray hair will only worsen the problem, since harsh chemicals have an adverse affect on healthy hair. If you must color your hair, stick to environmentally friendly products. There is no guarantee they won't stop the graying process, but at least they won't intensify it.6.Other methods.It's been said that mixing the contents of a vitamin E tablet and coconut oil and massaging it in the scalp is a wonderful treatment for preventing gray hair. Also, mixing a tablespoon of yeast and yogurt and eating it before every meal can also be effective.

  105. 5 Reasons to Use Home Remedies to Treat Eczema.When it comes to treating and managing eczema, sufferers have many choices.You may have heard that home remedies work, but do they? Although our bodies are all different, they have proven effective for many. That is just one of many reasons why home remedies are recommended for the treatment of eczema, continue reading on for five more.Reason #1 - Affordability.When using home remedies to treat eczema, you may need to purchase a few supplies, but they are pretty affordable when compared to prescription medications.Moreover, you may already have what you need inside your home. In that case, no additional money is needed to seek relief.Reason #2 - No Doctor's Visits.Not only does avoiding the doctor save you money, but it also eliminates a major hassle.If you work outside of the home or are a parent, you must arrange time off from work or childcare.Don't lose money or time with your kids. Home remedies enable you to treat your eczema from home and with ease.Reason #3 - Many Choices.Home remedies are treatment options you can do at home. For eczema, you have many choices. Something as simple as locking in moisture with lotion after a bath is considered a home remedy, as is drinking plenty of water.Other home remedies include wet wraps, oatmeal baths, oatmeal pastes, and diet changes.With many home remedies to choose from, you are sure to find an easy to implement remedy that works.Reason #4 - Fewer Risks.Home remedies for eczema are used as alternatives for prescription medications and some over-the-counter products.Many sufferers opt for home remedies because they are safer. There are fewer risks and side effects. Your goal is to seek treatment, not have other medical issues and complications to deal with too.Reason #5 - You Have Nothing to Lose.As previously stated, most home remedies for eczema are affordable, safe, and you have many choices. Most importantly, you are able to avoid the hassle of regular doctor's appointments.With these benefits and a high rate of success in many eczema patients, what do you have to lose?Nothing. If you haven't already tried home remedies to manage and treat your eczema, try them. Chances are you will like the end result.

  106. Healing Techniques.Health for most individuals nowadays is more a question of what physical issue you don’t have than really being ‘completely’ healthy. But true health is now more and more being considered to be much more than simply having physical health.Essentially, it means having a balanced, natural life – or what may be called an organic life, where physical, emotional, mental and spiritual health facets are of the essence in maintaining the individuals overall health and wellbeing.Have you ever heard of Qi Gong?.Qigong (also spelled Ch'i Kung) is a potent system of healing and energy medicine from China. It's the art and science of utilizing breathing methods, gentle movement, and meditation to clean, fortify, and circulate the life energy (qi).How about binaural beats?.Binaural beats are sounds that are supposed to stimulate the brain in specific ways. These sounds have been claimed to help induce relaxation, meditation, creativity and other desirable mental states.Do you know anything about holographic healing?.Holographic healing is a system that helps us to identify the unconscious patterns and power constrictions that underlie any issues that we might have in our lives.Have you heard about magnetic therapy?.Physical impairment, like spinal cord injury (SCI), multiple sclerosis (MS), and post polio syndrome, frequently aggravates a lot of ailments that are amenable to magnetic therapy, a progressively popular alternative medicine mode.What about ear candling?.Ear Candling is a process that goes back as far as biblical times, when hollow reeds from swamp regions were used as candles. It has been passed down for numerous generations by the North and South American natives, in addition to the Egyptian, African, Oriental and European cultures.If you have never heard of any of these techniques you may be missing out on a large part of health and wellness.There are even more than the ones mentioned here so it would be to your best interest to investigate further.

  107. Create Energy When Talking On Your Phone. More and more people are afraid that they will have to give up some of the household appliances they have so much longed for because the energy consumption is far above their financial possibilities.Thus, after months or even years of saving money in order to purchase what they want and like the most, many individuals see the need of getting rid of them because they no longer can afford paying huge electricity bills.Most of the times giving up those electrical appliances also means giving up comfort and turning back to a lifestyle characteristic to the past years, it means frustration and sorrow and sometimes even hours wasted by doing by hand something which an electrical appliance can do in a few minutes.If your electricity bill is sucking out your last pennies, then you probably know what I am talking about.However, this situation which for many people seems hopeless can be solved in a much easier and comfortable way.All you need in order to diminish your energy bill is another source of energy, a cheap and easy to use source that will provide you with enough energy to power small appliances and significantly lower the amount of power you use from the national or local electricity provider.This power source, which can represent your salvation, is the banal phone line.Each and every day, power runs through the phone cables, power which is mainly used for keeping the phone working and sustaining the conversation.During the day, this power is used, as people are talking on the phone, but during the late hours of the night the number of people using the phone line is relatively low, so that you can gather all that energy and use it to power your appliances.This energy is included in your phone bill, so there is something you pay for, thus you have all the right to use something for which you pay.To fully take advantage of this type of power you will need a device which will gather the energy from the phone and make it ready for use.The good thing about this device is that, even though it is more efficient during the night, it can also be used during the day or even when you are speaking on the phone.You will see that in a few months you will be able to use all your appliances and still save money on your electricity bill to fulfill some of your dreams.

  108. How to Get a Woman Horny---Without Even Laying a Finger on Her!.You may or may not know this but the female species take far longer to get sexually aroused compared to that of men.On the flipside however, although men get excited very quickly they can not remain in that state anywhere near as long as that of a woman.In order to really get your woman to her absolute peak of sexual arousal you must do one thing......tease her!By simply teasing her it is possible to get your woman to a level of horny that you may previously thought impossible.And you can do this without even laying a finger on her.Do you want to learn how to gain complete control over the arousal level of your woman?Make your woman super horny with these little-known methods:Number one---->By concentrating on specific sections of her body you can drive a woman insane and you can do this without even touching her!Try breathing in the scent of her hair and at the same time gently breathe warm air down her back and neck.Then try blowing on her nipples lightly.Tease her by going to lick them but then stopping short. This sort of sexually suggestive behaviour will blow her mind and have her ready to do anything for you in no time at all.Number two--->Tease her senseless! Try getting as close to her as you can but remember not to actually touch her in any way. You need to stop just short before making any kind of contact.It's a real anticipation builder.This can be done in all sorts of explicit ways.Try moving the very tip of your tongue to within millimetres of her clitoris.She will now be expecting to feel some physical gratification from your warm soft tongue......but she won't get it!This will drive her insane, but in a good way!There are many more tips and techniques like these that you can use to drive any woman sexually mental.Read on to learn more.....

  109. How to Make a Woman Horny.Listen up---being able to make your sex partner horny for you is perhaps one of the most important things you can ever do.Why?It's because sexual satisfaction is the number one reason why a woman would ever stick with you.The fact is this---a hot chick will stay with you even if you are as fat as Charles Bronson or as poor as the dirty old bum who lives under the bridge---as long as you are amazing at sex.Read on to discover the best ways to get a woman horny...and addicted to having sex with you!How To Make A Woman Horny---Supercharge Her Sexual Desire For You With These Killer Tactics.Tactic #1:Use Your Tongue On Her Lips.Kissing is by far the best way to turn a woman on - in fact they are all hard-wired physically to respond to tongue-on-tongue action.Big mistake - don't just stick your tongue down her throat.Choking her won't make her horny... unless she is into bondage and sado-masochism.Tactic #2:Use Your Tongue On Her Clitoris.The truth is that there are a lot of women who tend to PREFER oral sex to penetration - and chances are that your woman is one of them.It never hurts to find out for real.The big problem with most guys is that they just use their tongue to lick everything in sight.Big mistake.You must have a plan of attack in order to perform the best!Don't just suck everything you see down there.Instead, focus on the clitoris - that's where she is most sensitive.Here's a killer tip - move in circular motion around her clitoris - when you do this about 10 times slowly she will start to get wet all over.

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